The violin is a wooden string instrument with components of a violin are usually made from different types of wood.

The violin typically has four strings usually tuned in perfect fifths with notes G3, D4, A4, E5, and is most commonly played by drawing a bow across its strings. It can also be played by plucking the strings with the fingers (this style of playing is called pizzicato).

The violin was first known in 16th-century Italy, with some further modifications occurring in the 18th and 19th centuries to give the instrument a more powerful sound and projection.

Violin is used in may music styles such as classical music as a very large part of a symphony orchestra where are usually divided into two sections, known as the first and second violins or a part of an ensemble such as string quartet or as a solo instrument.

Violin also appears in ensembles supplying orchestral backgrounds to many jazz recordings.

Violin is also used in Indian music where the instrument is tuned so that the IV and III strings (G and D on a western-tuned violin) and the II and I (A and E) strings are sa–pa (do–sol) pairs and sound the same but are offset by an octave. The way the musician holds the instrument varies from Western to Indian music. In Indian music the musician sits on the floor cross-legged with the right foot out in front of them.

Violin has also very important role in popular music as an acoustic instrument or electric instrument.

Very important role plays violin as well in Arabic music.


Some of the most famous violinists of all the time 

  • Jascha Heifetz (1901-1974)
  • Niccolo Paganini (1782-1840) 
  • David Fyodorovich Oistrakh (1908-1974) 
  • Itzhak Perlman (1945) 
  • Hilary Hahn (1979) 
  • Friedrich “Fritz” Kreisler (1875-1962) 
  • Pablo de Sarasate (1844–1908) 
  • Nathan Mironovich Milstein (1904-1992)


  Some of the most famous violin pieces of all the time

  • J. S. Bach - Partita No. 2, Chaconne
  • N. Paganini - Caprice No. 24
  • C. Saint-Saëns - Introduction and Rondo Capriccioso
  • P. Sarasate - Zigeunerweisen
  • J. Sibelius - Violin Concerto
  • A. Vivaldi - The Four Seasons
  • E. Ysaye - Violin Sonata No. 3
  • J. Williams - Schindler’s List


Guitar is a musical instrument whose origins are shrouded in antiquity. The very word “guitar” seems to have evolved from “Kithara” which comes from the ancient Persian “Ki-tar” simply meaning three strings”. Later Latinize as “ chitara”, this was  further corrupted to chorotta, rotta, etc., but in Spain it became “ guitarra”, with similar names in many other languages.


Probably the earliest known indication of an instrument having strings that were to be plucked is a stone curving from the lluyuk settlement of the New Hittite Empire (circa 1400 B. C.) which may be considered an ancient ancestor of the classic guitars; the stone relief showed the typical long neck and Frets, incurved side on flat body, and soundholes on each sides of the neck. The Egyptians, with whom the Hittites had contact, had a similar instrument, their “long lutes”.

The Italians developed a guitar whose silhouette approached that of a contemporary classic guitar. It had an open soundboard, with five pairs of strings instead of six in the case of the vihuela.


In 1820 Fernando Carulli, a famed composer and a guitar virtuoso, presented a guitar to his son, this may not have been his own design. While it also had double strings, tuning was that of the present standard six string tuning. Wether used in the classic, flamenco or folk guitar.


The most significant contributions to the development of the classic guitar were made by Antonio Torres Jurado, a great Spanish Luthier (1817-1892). He established a string length of 650mm which became the standard for the modern guitar. This natural set the size proportions of the guitar body as well as the length of the fingerboard. Torres, guitars had extreme softness of touch and ease of action, with a mellow yet robust tonal quality, practically all classic guitars now being made closely follow the simple but beautiful lines of the Torres design.


The History of the guitar must necessarily include mention of its virtuosi. The evolution of guitar technique achieved great progress during the nineteenth century, often to as a Golden Age of the Guitar. Spaniards Dionisio Aguado (1781-1849) and Fernando Sor (1778-1839), together with Italians Mateo Carcassi (1792-1853), Mauro Guilliani to concert performance level.The great Spanish guitarist Francisco Tarrega (1852-1909) continued the achievements of Aguado and Sor laying the foundation of modern playing technique with his important studies.


Famous Classical Guitarists


Andres Segovia

Julian Bream

John Williams

Francisco Tarerega

Pepe Romero

David Russel


Famous guitar pieces


Libertango – Piazzolla

Recorded and published in 1974 in Milan, this sultry tango marks a change in style for composer Astor Piazzolla from classical tango to nuevo tango. Spicy rhythms and a fiendish melody have kept this one at the forefront of modern Tango, with countless brilliant interpretations to explore. 


Recuerdos de la Alhambra – Tárrega

Despite the seeming simplicity of its enchanting melody, Recuerdos de la Alhambra really stretches the soloist to the limit with this piece. The left-hand positions required of the guitarist are rather awkward, involving all sorts of unusual stretches – plus, the use of tremolo is a technical challenge for any performer. But at its best, Recuerdos is passionate, charming and beautifully tender.


Bourrée in E minor – Bach

One of the most famous pieces among guitarists, Bach's popular ‘Bourrée’ was originally written for lute. Although it owes its name to a French dance, Bach by no means intended his Bourrée to be for dancing. However, its slick tempo and its switch from minor to major in the last chord of each verse gives it a wonderfully jaunty feel.

Plus, the Bourrée was apparently Sir Paul McCartney’s inspiration for ‘Blackbird’…



A drum is a musical instrument that is played with the hands using a drum stick. (a stick for hitting a drum) A collection of drums and cymbals is called a drum kit or drum set.


History of Drums


The concept of drums is as old as mankind. Drum first appeared as far back as 6000 BC Mesopotamian excavations unearthed small cylindrical drums dated 3000 BC. The American Indians used gourd and wooden constructed drums for their rituals and ceremonies. By the 1930s the standard drum kit had taken shape. The kit consisted of a bass drum and foot pedal, snare, tom toms, hi–hat cymbal and large hanging cymbals.


Interesting facts about Drums and Drumming


Drums were with us from the dawn of mankind. First as natural objects that we could hit. Modern configuration of drum sets become in use during First years of 20th century. Drums and the most important part of the rhythm section of any band. Many band around the world are famous not only by their singers or composers, but by the style of their drummers. Drummers have to use all four of their limbs to play different drums. Skills that every modern drummer needs to have and limb independence, eye-hand coordination and good sense of rhythm. Drumming burns more calories in half hour session than cycling, weight lifting and hiking. Recreational playing of drums lowers stress hormones in our body.


Famous drummers and their genres


Ian Paice         Hand rick, heavy metal, blues Rock, progressive Rock

Neil Peart        Progressive rock, Hard rock, jazz, swing, heavy metal

Dave weckl      Jazz fusion, post-bop

Horacio            Latin jazz. Latin Rock

Mike Portony   progressive metal ,heavy metal ,progressive rock, hard rock, blues rock 


Why to study drums


Playing drums relives stress and a great physical workout. It helps build coordination and increases development in various rejions of the brain, that’s why musical instrument ‘DRUMS’ is so special